reklama 12006-08-12 12:11:45
adj (за козметичен продукт и пр.) разработен, без да е изпитван върху животни.
недвижимость в болгарии, недвижимость покупка болгария, рынок недвижимости болгария,
reklama 22006-08-17 07:26:38
>> Bulgaria >> Bulgarian army
History of the Land Forces
The beginning of the contemporary Bulgarian Army dates back as early as the establishment of the Bulgarian Land Troops after the liberation of the country in 1878. These troops comprised of: infantry, artillery, cavalry and engineer units. This is the original structure of the Land Forces that are the major branch of the Bulgarian Army whose task is to guarantee the sovereignty and independence of the country and protect its territorial integrity in cooperation with the other services. They comprise of types of units from the different branches as well as special troops trained to realize tasks both on their own as well as within the framework of multinational operational forces in peacekeeping operations.
Major Functions of the Land Forces
Structure of the Land Forces
The Land Forces in peacetime comprise of an HQ, Operational Forces Command, two Commands (East and West), Special Operations Forces Command and directly subordinate to the HQ units and formations.
Tasks Fulfilled by the Land Forces
In peacetime the Land Forces maintain permanent combat and mobilization readiness and train for defense and participation in operations other than war. They become part of multinational military formations in compliance with international treaties Bulgaria is a Party of; they also participate in the preparation of the population, the national economy and the maintenance of the wartime reserves and the infrastructure of the country for defense; implement programs for restructuring and modernization.
In times of crisis the Land Forces become part of contingents in operations other than war; participate in operations countering terrorist activities and defense of strategic facilities; assist the security organs in combating the proliferation of weapons for mass destruction, illegal armaments traffic and international terrorism.
In case of a military conflict of low and medium intensity the Active Forces that are part of the Land Forces together with the units directly subordinate to the HQ and components from the other services realize the initial tasks related to the defense of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the country.
In case of a military conflict of high intensity the Land Forces together with the Air Force and the Navy form the defense group of the Bulgarian Army and realize tasks related to countering the aggression of the enemy and protection of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the country.
The Active Forces are envisaged to realize the major defense tasks of the country and its coalition responsibilities. They comprise of 75 % of the peacetime personnel and are 100 % equipped whose major part is kept in operational readiness. The Active Forces are further divided into Deployment Forces and Main Defense Forces.
The Reserve Forces comprise of Enhancement Forces, Territorial Defense Forces and Training Grounds. They are tasked with planning and reservists’ preparation, armaments and equipment storage, training of formations for active forces rotation or increase of their personnel. The Reserve Forces in peacetime make up to 25 % of the Bulgarian Army.
Armament of the Land Forces
The units, formations and branches of the Land Forces are equipped with contemporary armaments.
The firing equipment is with high dynamic and exploitation parameters, that enables it to cope with the tasks within the whole spectrum of combat activities.
The mechanized and tank formations and units are equipped with reliable, highly maneuverable of various types and use armored tank equipment. It provides permanent defense.
As a result of the implementation of the CFE Treaty, the Land Forces have T-55 and T-72 from all their various models, armored combat vehicles, multipurpose light APC and APC.
The artillery equipment comprises of systems that provide for firing under all circumstances and conditions. These are: howitzers, 130 mm weapons, 122 mm self propelled howitzers "Gvozdika"; 100 mm antitank weapons and anti tank guided complexes "Fagot", "Maljutka" and "Konkurs".
The Land Forces also are equipped with mortars of different caliber.
The air defense component of the Land Forces have different artillery and rocket complexes and weapons that provide a reliable air defense for the territory of the country and the troops.
The Land Forces also use 23 mm machine gun complexes, air defense complexes "Strela" - 2M, 57 mm and 100 mm air defense weapons, close and far ranging rocket complexes.
History of the Air Force
The establishment of the Bulgarian aviation started back in 1903. The created then balloon command in 1906 was transformed into a combat formation that was part of the railroad group and was named Floatation Formation. In 1911 the Government took a decision to train pilots and mechanics abroad and purchase airplanes as a result of which in 1912 Bulgaria had its own aviation. On October 16 that same year the first combat task was completed by an airplane because of which this day is considered as the birthday of the military aviation in Bulgaria.
Major Functions of the Air Force
Structure of the Air Force
The Air Force in peace-time have the following structure (Figure 1):
In terms of functions the Air Force is divided into active and reserve.
The active forces are designed to realize the main tasks related to the defense of the country and the state's responsibilities within the framework of the Alliance. They are 100 % manned and equipped and the majority of them are kept in operational readiness. As for their tasks the active forces are divided into Deployment Forces and Main Defense Forces.
The Deployment Forces are being built so that they are mobile and with a high level of logistic independence, manned with professional servicemen, maintaining high combat readiness, survivability and interoperability.
An integral part of the Deployment Forces of the Air Force are the Rapid Reaction Forces. They are built and trained to be fully compatible with NATO's Rapid and Immediate Response Forces. The Rapid Reaction Forces are ready to realize collective and national defense tasks. In peacetime they take part in rescue and humanitarian operations, peacekeeping operations outside the territory of the country as well as provide assistance to other institutions or the local authority.
The Main Defense Forces of the Air Force comprise of: Air Force HQ, Air Defense and Tactical Aviation Commands as well as their support. The Main Defense Forces plus the Reserve Forces form the forces for defense of the national territory.
The Reserve Forces comprise of Enhancing Forces. They comprise of Air Force formations that are deployed in times of war and further support and strengthen the Defense Forces.The Air Force comprises of branches and special troops.
The branches are: fighter aviation, assault aviation, intelligence aviation and transportation aviation, aid defense troops, radio-technical troops, communications troops, radio-technical support troops, logistics and medical troops.The special troops comprise of combat support units, special technical support and logistics and medical troops.
The organization, structure, tasks and use of the branches and special troops of the Air Force are stipulated in the Air Force Doctrine.
Tasks Fulfilled by the Air Force
In peacetime the Air Force control the adherence to the floatation regime and the integrity of the air space of the Republic of Bulgaria, carry out operational and combat training and take part in different operations.
In times of war on their own or together with the other types of Armed Forces, the Air Force realize tasks related to winning over and maintaining air superiority, providing air defense for troops and facilities on the territory of the country, isolation of the combat operation zone, air support for the Land Forces and the Navy as well as intelligence and other specialized activities.
History of the Navy
The Bulgarian Navy was established back in 1879 in the town of Russe. In 1879 started the establishment of the Black Sea Navy with its main base in Varna. The first Bulgarian naval officers were trained at academies in Russia, Italy, Austria-Hungary and France. During the Balkan War of 1912-1913 and WW I, the Navy took an active part in the combats. The submarine forces and the naval aviation were established then. This period marks the beginning of mine-sweeping operations and counter attack. The Navy defends the sovereignty and territorial waters of the Republic of Bulgaria. The size and equipment of the Navy are defined in accordance with the maximum defense potential for coping with the tasks at the sea theaterr and in compliance with the Military Doctrine of the Republic of Bulgaria.
Functions of the Navy
Structure of the Navy
In peace time the Navy comprises of: HQ of the Navy with directly subordinate units as well as three divisions.
Tasks Fulfilled by the Navy
The tasks of the Navy are stemming from the policy of the country aimed at good neighborly relations and defense of the national sovereignty. They can be divided into two groups:
Tasks in case of a military conflict:
These tasks of the Navy are in full compliance with the defense character of the Military Doctrine of the Republic of Bulgaria
Armaments and Equipment of the Navy